Transducer play a vital role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process should be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another. It is a device which converts one type of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical power is converted into an electrical energy.
Types of transducer: The two main kinds of transducers, they are: Active transducers and Passive transducers. Active transducers: Active transducer is a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electrical power by itself. Thermocouple, 3 Axis Load Cell and much more are the most useful types of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is actually a device which converts the given non-electricity into electrical power by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are the examples for the Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect is found in some materials (such as quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is applied for the structure, it produces an electrical charge and, when an electrical field is used, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” hails from the Greek word for pressure.
Piezo Transducer: A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or vice versa. Basically any type of piezo mechanism could be called a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to drive voltage changes and for that reason can be used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are employed in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The main benefit of a piezo speaker over a magnetically driven speaker depends on the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness in the piezo ceramic plates that are utilized to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging are also according to Rotary Torque Sensor. In cases like this, the ultrasonic transducers are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly boosts the amplitude while decreasing the input power concurrently, i.e. the system is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer: In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are often known as a piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is typically used to generate forces or to position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are usually operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors: Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which are very widely used for pressure sensing applications. These are sometimes used along with piezo actuators to offer position feedback or force feedback, for example on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive signifies that the resistance changes with all the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors do not produce a charge (energy) and they cannot convert mechanical in electrical power and the other way round. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a good choice for entry-level systems. Other sensors can be purchased when leading edge performance is necessary.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators: If operated under the right conditions, the latest generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators could work for 10’s of billions of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping: Because of the fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a good choice for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is needed to provide the controller the correct information about how to counteract the mechanical vibration by providing the best amplitude and phase output towards the piezo actuator. The sensor can even be a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to answer strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping: Any type of rapid actuation will cause vibrations in a work piece. Based on Newton’s laws, this implies, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the greater reactive forces it hdjjdy cause. In case these forces are unwanted, a second piezo mechanical system having a counter mass can be integrated and driven with a signal from the opposite phase. With a bit of fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel each other out and also the work piece may now move quickly but without exerting any force on the surrounding structures. This trick is often used in fast S Type Load Cell for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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